Educational Philosophies. Within the epistemological frame that focuses on the nature of knowledge and how we come to know, there are four major educational philosophies, each related to one or more of the general or world philosophies just discussed. These educational philosophical approaches are currently used in classrooms the world over. They are Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, and Reconstructionism. These educational philosophies focus heavily on WHAT we should teach, the curriculum aspect.
Education Encyclopedia - StateUniversity. The emphasis is on process-how one comes to know. Assow, A. Brsmeld are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Armstrong, John A. When American culture is in a state of crisis, the second of these roles—that of modifying and innovating—becomes more important. Cancel Save. Actions Shares.
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Schools should not try to set or influence policies. Sign In. Each of the educational philosophies relates to one or more of the metaphysical world view philosophies. Haindel, B. Ultimately, the good of mankind must take precedence. Brameld adult education indifferent rating is particularly significant because it has been made despite the clamorous awareness of educators of the Brameld adult education for an effective intercultural program. Brameld was trying to perfect the education in American, by doing so, he established goals for society. One of his tenets was that the school Adult classifieds salt lake city improve the way of life of our citizens through experiencing freedom and democracy in schools. Programmed instruction; contract learning; teaching machines; computer-assisted instruction; practice and reinforcement. Watson in s. KoernerH. Socioeconomic and sociopolitical imbalances. In addition, teachers should help students to understand themselves as well as their relationship toothers.
Discipline: Social Studies Subject: Historical biographies.
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- Below you'll find three tables which compare five kinds of educational philosophies Liberal, Behaviorist, Progressive, Humanistic, and Radical.
- Theodore Burghard Hurt Brameld, born in , was one of the leading educational philosophers of the 20th century.
- Theodore Brameld believed that the goal of education was to employ schools as agents for social change.
- Educational Philosophies.
This volume is an extensive and intensive revision of the first half of an earlier work, Patterns of Educational Philosophy. The second half is also published as a revised and separate volume. In this book I have tried to provide an interpretation that will acquaint you with the most conspicuous points of view now influencing American education. You are, I assume, planning to become a teacher. I wish it were somehow within my capacity to express to you my own great pride in our profession.
It seems to me beyond doubt the greatest of all professions; and I trust you are entering it with a sense of adventure, of opportunity for public service, and with every intention to remain in it as a lifework. If you wish to be a first-rate teacher, you know that you will need the most thorough training you can obtain and that this training can never terminate so long as you remain a teacher. The philosophy of education is intended to provide some of that training.
More than any other field of learning, philosophy goes to the roots of things. It explores the basic sources and aims of life. It asks and tries to answer the deepest questions that man can ask or answer.
When philosophy does its job, it disturbs anyone it touches. I hope that you will be disturbed by this book. If you are not, then the book has not succeeded in compelling you to subject your beliefs to re-examination. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. No cover image. Read preview. Excerpt Dear Student : This volume is an extensive and intensive revision of the first half of an earlier work, Patterns of Educational Philosophy.
He recognized the potential for either human annihilation through technology and human cruelty or the capacity to create a beneficent society using technology and human compassion. Teachers should help young people learn how the scientific method applies, not just to physics,chemistry or biology, but to the whole of life, including personal and social life Brameld, page Learner "Renaissance person"; cultured, always a learner; seeks knowledge rather than just information; conceptual; theoretical understanding. William Bagley, took progressivist approaches to task in the journal he formed in However, the fundamental theses of the study are of interest to the general reader.
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PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES IN EDUCATION
Educational Philosophies. Within the epistemological frame that focuses on the nature of knowledge and how we come to know, there are four major educational philosophies, each related to one or more of the general or world philosophies just discussed.
These educational philosophical approaches are currently used in classrooms the world over. They are Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, and Reconstructionism. These educational philosophies focus heavily on WHAT we should teach, the curriculum aspect. Perennialism For Perennialists, the aim of education is to ensure that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of Western civilization.
These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. The focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Teaching these unchanging principles is critical. Humans are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Thus, cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile education.
The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students' growth in enduring disciplines. Advocates of this educational philosophy are Robert Maynard Hutchins who developed a Great Books program in and Mortimer Adler, who further developed this curriculum based on great books of western civilization.
Essentialism Essentialists believe that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The emphasis in this conservative perspective is on intellectual and moral standards that schools should teach.
The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor. Although this educational philosophy is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialists accept the idea that this core curriculum may change. Schooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society.
It should focus on facts-the objective reality out there--and "the basics," training students to read, write, speak, and compute clearly and logically. Schools should not try to set or influence policies. Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and discipline. Teachers are to help students keep their non-productive instincts in check, such as aggression or mindlessness.
This approach was in reaction to progressivist approaches prevalent in the s and 30s. William Bagley, took progressivist approaches to task in the journal he formed in Other proponents of Essentialism are: James D. Koerner , H. Rickover , Paul Copperman , and Theodore Sizer Progressivism Progressivists believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher.
This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the world. It is active, not passive. The learner is a problem solver and thinker who makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context. Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing. Curriculum content is derived from student interests and questions.
The scientific method is used by progressivist educators so that students can study matter and events systematically and first hand. The emphasis is on process-how one comes to know. The Progressive education philosophy was established in America from the mid s through the mid s. John Dewey was its foremost proponent. One of his tenets was that the school should improve the way of life of our citizens through experiencing freedom and democracy in schools.
Shared decision making, planning of teachers with students, student-selected topics are all aspects. Books are tools, rather than authority. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education. Theodore Brameld was the founder of social reconstructionism, in reaction against the realities of World War II. He recognized the potential for either human annihilation through technology and human cruelty or the capacity to create a beneficent society using technology and human compassion.
George Counts recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order. Critical theorists, like social reconstructionists, believe that systems must be changed to overcome oppression and improve human conditions. Paulo Freire was a Brazilian whose experiences living in poverty led him to champion education and literacy as the vehicle for social change.
In his view, humans must learn to resist oppression and not become its victims, nor oppress others. To do so requires dialog and critical consciousness, the development of awareness to overcome domination and oppression. Rather than "teaching as banking," in which the educator deposits information into students' heads, Freire saw teaching and learning as a process of inquiry in which the child must invent and reinvent the world.
For social reconstructionists and critical theorists, curriculum focuses on student experience and taking social action on real problems, such as violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflation, and inequality. Strategies for dealing with controversial issues particularly in social studies and literature , inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspectives are the focus. Community-based learning and bringing the world into the classroom are also strategies. Which of these educational philosophies would you describe as authoritarian?
Which as non-authoritarian? Each of the educational philosophies relates to one or more of the metaphysical world view philosophies. What connections do you see?